ANDREW PHILIP SPATE
SUMMARY OF PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
In a professional career spanning more than 40 years, I have had extensive experience in Australia and internationally in the fields of natural resource inventory, landscape rehabilitation, tourism planning and management, cave karst research and management.
Major interests include sustainable natural resource management, cave tourism and management – especially good engineering practice and interpretation, karst research, cave invertebrates, cave dwelling bats, groundwater dependent ecosystems, Holocene climate change, long-term bushfire history and better water resource management.
I am currently the Principal of my own consulting practice, with national and overseas clients in government and the private sector. Assignments range from karst management plans to assessment of World Heritage Areas, and have included rehabilitation of bushfire damaged landscapes, assessments of derelict mine sites and development of interpretive material for karst tourism ventures.
I have extensive experience in the preparation and review of management plans, environmental impact statements and similar documents, scientific and copy editing, research supervision and monitoring of environmental impacts on natural environments.
2002 – present: Self-employed environmental consultant – Manager, Optimal Karst Management.
A summary of my activities over this period is provided below.
1981-2002 NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service; Investigations Officer, Karst (Scientific Officer Grade 4 (Special Grade). Senior Project Officer, Water Reforms (Project Officer Grade 6). During the last decade with the Service, I spent lengthy periods acting in senior field management positions. These acting opportunities totalled about three years. Over the last three years in the Service I was heavily involved in community-based natural resource management planning particularly in the field of water reforms. A summary of activities in the Service is below.
Summer expeditions to the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica, with ANARE, in 1986-87, 1988-89, 1991-92, 1992-93 and 1999-2000.
1972-81 CSIRO Division of Land Use Research, Woodland Ecology Unit; Experimental Officer, Grade 2.
1971-72 Kosciusko National Park; Interpretative Ranger (three months)
1967-71 Self-employed (including rural work, retail trade, Outward Bound instructor)
1966-67 Melbourne University Biochemistry Department; Technical Officer
1964-65 Australian National University Botany Department; Laboratory Assistant
Bachelor of Applied Science, 1972, University of Canberra. This degree was in the field of natural resource management with a recreation planning component. I also completed a number of science subjects at the University of Melbourne and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology in 1964-1966.
Whilst in CSIRO I undertook a number of in-service courses mainly in computing and statistics and in pedology. The National Parks and Wildlife Service has a very strong emphasis on training and I have either organised training courses or participated in many others. In-service courses attended included accrual accounting, budgeting, wilderness first aid, fire suppression and planning, the Australian Incident Management System, various computer packages and so on. I also attended external studies such as fire and groundwater management short courses.
TRAINING OTHER PEOPLE
Courses I have conducted include karst management, karst science, landscape evaluation and management, soil science, fire behaviour, fire management planning and suppression.
I have conducted eleven two- to three-day cave guide and ranger training workshops for the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, the Tasmanian Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage and the Tasmanian Forestry Commission, the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, the NSW Tourism Commission, the Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management and Tourist Bureaux, the Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service, and Cango Caves in South Africa as well as similar training sessions for speleological groups. A 120-page set of notes has been especially rewritten for each of these workshops.
CURRENT MEMBERSHIP OF MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORY BODIES
International Show Caves Association Technical and Scientific Committee
PAST MEMBERSHIP OF MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORY BODIES
Australian Capital Territory Bushfire Council
Bungonia Recreational Activities Group (Chair)
Burning Mountain Nature Reserve Management Committee
Goodradigbee and Goobarragandra Reserves Trust
Independent Scientific Committee – Kosciuszko National Park Plan of Management Development Process
Jenolan Caves Plan of Management Steering Committee
Jenolan Caves Scientific Advisory Committee
Jenolan Caves Social and Environmental Monitoring Committee (formerly Chair)
Lord Howe Island Board
NSW Karst Management Advisory Committee
Mount Etna Limestone Quarry Rehabilitation Committee
NSW Interdepartmental Committee on Lime
NSW Water Reform Committees (six groundwater and unregulated stream committees)
Wee Jasper Reserves Trust
Wellington Caves Advisory Committee
CURRENT MEMBERSHIP OF PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS
Australasian Bat Society Inc.
Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association Inc. (Vice President 1987-1991; President 1991-1995; Honorary Fellow 1993; Executive Officer 1995-1998; Scientific Officer 1998-2005; International Affairs Officer 2005-present)
Australian Rock Art Research Association
Australian Speleological Federation Inc. (Vice President 1978-1988; Honorary Fellow 1986)
Bat Conservation International
British Cave Research Association
Canberra Speleological Society Inc.
Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand
International Show Caves Association
Geological Society of Australia – WA Division
National Speleological Society (USA)
Western Australia Speleological Group
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING ACTIVITIES – 2002 TO 2012
Since leaving government employment in early 2002 I have, through my firm, Optimal Karst Management, been involved in:
- The review and design of monitoring techniques and regimes, for the Yarrangobilly Caves sewer plant (Kosciuszko National Park).
- The design, production and execution of the Australian Cave and Karst Management Association’s participation in the World’s first Cave Exposition, Samcheok City, Republic of Korea.
- Involvement in the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service’s Independent Scientific Committee’s review of the values of Kosciuszko National Park .
- A cave tourism consultancy in Papua New Guinea with Aesop Business Volunteers Ltd.
- A review of the Blue Waterholes, Kosciuszko National Park, future management proposals.
- Cave and karst management training for Capricorn Caverns, Rockhampton, and the Queensland National Parks Service.
- Professional advice into show cave cleaning activities, Yarrangobilly Caves, Kosciuszko National Park.
- Research into cave and karst values of the Duchess-Osborne area, Queensland.
- Research into cave and karst values in the Broken River area, Queensland.
- Review of parts of the Kosciuszko National Park draft Plan of Management.
- Landscape rehabilitation and management planning for the Australian National University Mount Stromlo Observatory.
- Geological hazard mapping and assessment in Kosciuszko National Park (with URS Consultants).
- Derelict mines assessment for NSW Department of Mineral Resources/National Parks and Wildlife Service.
- Development of fire (4) and weed (1) management plans for local government in NSW and the Australian National University.
- Review and development of interpretation plans and guide training projects for the Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia.
- Reviewing the impacts of farm forestry on karst environments in Tasmania.
- Environmental mapping for TransGrid NSW.
- Show cave evaluation and renewal for the Korean Cave Research Institute.
- Manuscript review and editing for the Korean Literature Translation Institute.
- Substantial contributions and reviewing and editing of a UNESCO World Heritage (successful) nomination document and related management plans for the government of Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, for the Korean Cultural Heritage Administration.
- Conducting landscape rehabilitation training programs on behalf of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation.
- Development of interpretation materials and structures for Trezkinn Cave, Chillagoe, Queensland, for the Queensland NPWS.
- Show cave relighting and infrastructure refurbishment planning and implementation in Korea and Western Australia.
- Participation in the Commonwealth Department of Environment and Water Resources National Panel on the Significance of Australia’s Karst resources.
- Participation in the Commonwealth Department of Environment and Water Resources National Panel on the Significance of Australia’s Pseudokarst resources.
- Substantial contributions, review and editing of a World Heritage nomination document and related management plans for the Korean Cretaceous Dinosaur Coast, Republic of Korea, for the Korean Cultural Heritage Administration (unsuccessful).
- Assessment of potential environmental impacts on the London Bridge karst of the proposed Murrumbidgee to Googong water transfer for GHD Consultants.
- Preparation of nomination documents and related management plans for the (successful) Jeju Island UNESCO Global Geopark bid for the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Republic of Korea.
- Extensive fieldwork, literature review and preparation of a comprehensive assessment of the karst and pseudokarst in northern Australia for the Commonwealth Department Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts.
- Invited speaker at the Second East Asia Geopark Symposium in Taiwan.
- Lecturing at the Jeju Island, South Korea, Peace Summer School.
- Expert witness in the New Zealand Environment Court regarding the proposed Waitahora Wind Farm on the karst of the Puketoi Range.
- Review of the Ningaloo Coast World Heritage nomination document.
- Preparation of a sampling protocol for groundwater and subterranean fauna as required by the NSW Land and Environment Court for a proposed limestone quarry at Timor, NSW.
- Ongoing advice and field sampling of groundwater dependent fauna at the proposed Stoneco Quarry, Timor, NSW.
- Field sampling of groundwater dependent fauna at the proposed QCoal Drake coal mine, Bowen Basin, Queensland.
- Invited speaker at the Sixth International Show Caves Association in Slovakia.
- Regular meetings of the NSW Karst Management Advisory Committee, the Bungonia Recreational Activities Group and the Wellington Caves Advisory Committee.
- Development and promotion of geotourism networks and projects in NSW and elsewhere in Australia.
- Submission on wilderness proposals for the South Australian part of the Nullarbor karst on behalf of ACKMA.
- Submission on “People and Parks: A Draft Visitor Strategy for South Australia’s National Parks and Reserves” on behalf of ACKMA.
- Field ecological surveys and other volunteer activities with the Western Australian Department of Conservation.
- Invited speaker at the International Symposium on a Global Plan for Mt. Mudeung, South Korea, Gwangju.
- Major report to the Korean Cave Research Institute on cave lighting.
- Ongoing provision of ad hoc advice to cavers, scientists, private land holders and government agencies in regard to cave and karst management.
Summary of activities in the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Although I was primarily employed by the NPWS as its karst specialist, I was involved in a wide variety of environmental and field management issues not directly related to karst. These included water quality issues, management planning, environmental impact assessment, the harvesting and rehabilitation with native species of a six hundred hectare Pinus plantation, as well as major involvement in fire suppression activities.
I acted for lengthy periods as the Regional Manager, Assistant Regional Manager, Operations Manager and Fire Management Officer South Eastern Region, as Chief Ranger, both at Kosciusko and Tumut, as Superintendent, Kosciusko, as District Manager at Nowra and Tumut; and as Regional Manager, Northern, Southern and Snowy Mountains Regions.
I was a Ministerial appointee as a member of the Lord Howe Island Board from September 1989 until March 1995.
From 1991 until 1993 I was a member of the NSW Interdepartmental Working Party on Lime. This group was established to facilitate the production of agricultural lime (from limestone) to assist in the amelioration of soil acidity in NSW soils. Soil acidity is a major problem affecting agricultural production and, through secondary effects, is increasingly impacting on natural and cultural resources.
I appeared in the Land and Environment Court on the Service’s behalf on several occasions. I regularly represented the Service at Water Reform Committees, bushfire associations, conservation and other non-governmental organisations such as conservation bodies, recreational user groups and on interdepartmental meetings. In addition I was involved in negotiations with land and industrial developers such as in the “fast-tracking” exercise for APPM for their proposed major recycled paper mill expansion at Nowra.
I have an extensive range of overseas contacts in the field of karst management and my advice is sought regularly by NSW, interstate and overseas agencies. I review, for formal scientific publication, some six to eight papers each year and have supervised Doctoral and Masters students.
Karst related activities in the NPWS included major management planning projects, supervision and encouragement of research into karst matters, contact and liaison with cave users, inventory projects and advice to Service officers inside and outside the State as well as continuing research into karst processes in Kosciusko National Park. These activities required supervision of staff, students, researchers and consultants. Considerable improvements in our knowledge of, for example, cave invertebrates and mammalian fossils have resulted from this work. In 1994 I obtained a States Assistance Grant for $44,800 to produce an atlas of the invertebrate cave fauna of New South Wales. This resulted in an extensive survey of New South Wales’ karst areas and the production of a comprehensive report. I also supervised a similar grant made to the University of Sydney for karst geomorphological work in the north-east of the State.
In 1987 I organised the seventh Australasian Cave Tourism and Management Conference, a meeting of the Study Group on Man’s Impact on Karst associated with the 26th Conference of the International Geographical Union and a number of smaller conferences and workshops. I was involved in the creation of the Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association and was President of the Association for four years as well as holding a range of other committee positions. I am currently the International Affairs Officer.
Whilst employed by the Service I was involved in a number of issue oriented-projects with other authorities. These have included the Jenolan Caves Scientific Advisory Committee and the Plan of Management Steering Committee; the Burning Mountain Nature Reserve Development Committee, the Wellington Caves Advisory Committee, the Goodradigbee and Goobarragandra Reserves Trust and the Australian Heritage Commission.
I have had input into the Tasmanian Forestry Commission’s karst management proposals, the deliberations of the Victorian Government Cave Classification Committee, and into the management of caves in this State by the former New South Wales Department of Lands. I was the guest editor for the Australian Ranger Bulletin’s Cave Management Special Issue.
A major project in the Service was the planning and supervision of the Jounama Pine Plantation harvesting and rehabilitation program within Kosciusko National Park. This unusual project required the development of new rehabilitation methods to cope with the harsh environmental conditions as well as being the first such broadscale conversion in Australia to restore a Pinus species plantation back to a native plant community.
Before and following my training in the Australian Incident Command System I was fully involved in fire management both on the ground and in Incident Command centres at all levels up to Deputy Incident Controller in formally declared emergency incidents.
On a number of occasions I was sent to non-park service incident centres as Planning Officer or Logistics Officer. Indeed, following my resignation from the park service, I was retained to be Planning Officer or Divisional Commander by both the Service and the NSW Rural Fire Service in the 2003 fire emergency in southern NSW and the ACT. I have also been involved in the preparation of fire management plans and in training.
Tasmanian Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage
During a three-month secondment to the Tasmanian Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage in 1990 I carried out resource inventories, impact assessments and developed management recommendations for the internationally significant Kubla Khan Cave at Mole Creek. This resulted in a plan of management for the site.
Australian Heritage Commission
I was retained by The Australian Heritage Commission on two occasions to assess and review objections to proposed listings of geological sites on the Register of the National Estate. I was one of the lead writers who prepared material leading to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s Guidelines for Cave and Karst Protection published in 1997.
Groundwater dependent ecosystems
The cave fauna work led to an interest in groundwater dependent ecosystems and I have contributed markedly to the increase in knowledge – both of the systems and in the understanding of these communities by the public – across New South Wales.
Water resource management
I was heavily involved the New South Wales Government’s Reforms of water policy and legislation. This involved chairing public meetings along the length of the Murrumbidgee River during the introductory community involvement phase, very considerable participation in the High Conservation Value Rivers identification as part of the Stressed Rivers Assessment process and in the formation of the Murrumbidgee and Murray Unregulated Streams Management Committees and the Murrumbidgee Groundwater Management Committee.
I was the Service’s primary nominee on these committees and the alternate nominee on the Murrumbidgee River Management Committee, Murray Unregulated Streams Committee and the South Coast Streams Management Committee. I provided advice to a number of other groundwater management committees and was the Service’s representative on the exhaustive inter-departmental review of all the State’s groundwater management plans.
Conservation Management planning
I have also undertaken management planning consultancies in Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales, Christmas Island and Korea for various conservation agencies. Many of these relate to karst management problems or to World Heritage assessments.
Brief overview of Antarctic research
I participated in five ANARE expeditions to the Larsemann Hills since 1986 in a research capacity, in association the University of NSW. I have also visited Macquarie Island, Commonwealth Bay, Casey and Mawson and spent relatively long periods at Davis and the Vestfold Hills. Foreign bases visited include Dumont D’Urville, Progress I and II, Zhong Shan and Druzhnaya IV. As a result of these expeditions I have published, with others, seven papers or reports. I have also presented a number of seminars on our Antarctic work.
The Antarctic work included environmental impact assessment and review, studies on erosion rates, pollution of waterways and soils, landscape development and Holocene climate change.
Summary of speleological and related activities
I have been interested in caves and karst since boyhood and have been greatly interested in the processes operating in karstic terrains, and, to a lesser extent, in cave biology and archaeology. I have visited caves, both “wild” and tourist in all States of Australia and in New Zealand and have carried out various mapping, inventory, research and management planning projects in all States and Territories, and in many overseas countries.
I was vice-president of the Australian Speleological Federation Inc. (ASF) for five two-year terms and convener of the Conservation Commission of ASF for one term. I was librarian for fifteen years. The Federation honoured me by electing me as the second Fellow of the Federation. I, with two others, organised the eleventh biennial conference of the Australian Speleological Federation in Canberra in 1976.
I was a foundation member of the Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association in 1987 and have been either president, or other office holder of the Association since that time. The Association elected me as its first Fellow.
In terms of technical caving expertise I have skills in cave photography, surveying, single rope techniques, laddering and cave rescue as well as in a number of aspects of cave and karst science specifically karst hydrology. I have published widely on many aspects of caves and karst including more than a dozen peer-reviewed papers in professional scientific journals as well as in many other venues.
In 2001 and 2002 I was an invited speaker at cave science symposia in the Republic of Korea and played substantial roles in the development and hosting of the first International Cave Expo held in Samcheok City, Korea, in July/August 2002. Since that time my karst-related activities have continued as outlined above.
Summary of activities in CSIRO 1972-1981
My employment at the CSIRO Division of Land Use Research was under a contract between the Australian Army and CSIRO and involved the development of management strategies, assessment and research into soil conservation methods and into hydrologic processes. The work included:
Assessing and solving environmental problems
Experience in this field includes:
- Work in all States of Australia except the Northern Territory. Problems addressed included erosion, dune stabilisation, coastal protection, salinisation, pollution, pest and weed control and vegetation disturbance from a variety of causes as well as “municipal” type problems (water supply, garbage and sewage disposal etc).
- Mapping and classifying soils and vegetation in Tasmania, Queensland and Victoria.
- Land system mapping in Tasmania, Queensland, Western Australia and Victoria.
- Air photo and remote sensing interpretation in all States.
- Conservation activities including:
- The Puckapunyal Restoration Project. I was first understudy and then took over responsibility for the planning and supervision of this multi-disciplinary project on which about $5.5 million has been expended to ameliorate soil erosion and salinity problems.
- Sand dune stabilisation projects in Western and South Australia.
- Experience in techniques of rehabilitation following mining, logging and other disturbances.
- Army land management problems in all States (except Northern Territory)
- Preparation of Environmental Impact Statements for land acquisition for military training (Western Australia, Victoria) and for the impact of highway development (NSW)
- Review of Environmental Impact Statements in all States.
- Surface water hydrology research and monitoring experiments and networks in Queensland, Victoria and New South Wales.
- Research into soil/water relationships, dryland salinity and groundwater interactions.
- Consulting and Environmental Impact Statements.
Jennings, J.N., Brush, J.B., Nicoll, R.S., and Spate, A.P. (1976) Karst stream self-capture at London Bridge, Burra Creek, NSW, Australian Geographer, 13:238-49
Spate, A.P., Jennings, J.N., Smith, D.I. and James, J.M. (1976) Triple dye tracing experiment at Yarrangobilly, NSW, Helictite, 14(2)27-47
Jennings, J.N., Bao Haosheng, and Spate, A.P. (1980) Equilibrium versus events in river behaviour and blind valleys at Yarrangobilly, N.S.W., Helictite 18(2)39-54
Caldwell, J.R., Davey, A.G., Jennings, J.N. and Spate, A.P. (1982) Colour in some Nullarbor Plain speleothems, Helictite, 20(1)3-10
Crapper, P.F., and Spate, A.P. (1982) Rational Land Use Planning: Puckapunyal Army Training Area, Journal of Environmental Management, 15:351-361
Spate, A.P., Jennings, J.N., Smith, D.I., and Greenaway, M.A. (1983) The micro-erosion meter: use and limitations, Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 10:427-440
Gillieson, D.G., Spate, A.P. and Head, M.J. (1985) Evidence for cold climate processes at Wombeyan Caves, Southern Tablelands, N.S.W., Search, 16:46-47
Spate, A.P., and Gillieson, D.S. (1984) Joe Jennings – an obituary and karst bibliography, Helictite 22(2)35-42
Spate, O.H.K., and Spate, A.P. (1985) Joseph Newell Jennings — an appreciation, Australian Geographer, 23:325-337
Burgess, J.S., Gillieson, D.S. and A.P. Spate (1988) On the thermal stratification of freshwater lakes in the Snowy Mountains, Australia, and the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica, Search, 19(3)147-9
Quilty, P.G., Burgess, J.S., Gardiner, G., Gillieson, D.S. and Spate, A.P., (1990) Ammoelphidiella and associated benthic foraminifera, Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica, Journal of Foraminferal Research, 20(1)1-7
Burgess, J.S. Spate, A.P., and F.I. Norman, (1992) Environmental Impacts of Station Development in the Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica, Journal of Environmental Management, 36:287-299
Spate, A.P., (1993) Karsting around for bones: Aborigines and karst caves in south eastern Australia, Helictite 31(1)13-22
Burgess, J.B. and Spate A.P., (1994) The onset of deglaciation in the Larsemann Hills, Eastern Antarctica, Antarctic Science, 6(4)491-495
Spate A.P., Burgess J.S. and Shevlin J., (1995) Surface lowering by aeolian weathering and by salt weathering, Princess Elizabeth Land, Eastern Antarctica, Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 20:567-573
Moses, C.A., Spate, A.P., Smith, D.I. and Greenaway, M.A. (1995) Limestone weathering in Eastern Australia, Part 2: Process study, Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 20:501-514
Smith, D.I., Greenaway, M.A., Moses, C. and Spate, A.P. (1995) Limestone weathering in Eastern Australia, Part 1: Erosion rates, Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 20:451-463
Wang, Z., Norman, F.I., Burgess, J.S., Ward, S.J., Spate, A.P. and Carson, C.J., (1996) Human Influences on breeding of south polar skuas in the eastern Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, Polar Record, 32(180)43-50
Gore, D.B., Creagh, D.C., Burgess, J.S., Colhoun, E.A., Spate, A.P. and Baird, A.S. (1996) Composition, distribution and origin of surficial salts in the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, Antarctic Science, 8(1)73-84
Burgess, J., Carson, C., Head, J. and Spate, A. (1997) Larsemann Hills: Not Heavily Glaciated during the Last Glacial Maximum, The Antarctic Region: Geological Evolution and Processes, 841-843
Thurgate, M.E., Gough, J.S., Clarke, A.K., Serov, P. and Spate, A., (2001) Stygofauna diversity and distribution in Eastern Australian cave and karst areas, Subterranean Biology in Australia 2000, Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement No. 64:37-48
Thurgate, M.E., Gough, J.S., Spate, A. and Eberhard, S.M., (2001) Subterranean biodiversity in NSW: from rags to riches, Subterranean Biology in Australia 2000, Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement No. 64:49-62
Non-peer reviewed papers and conference presentations
Hall, L.S., Young, R.A., and Spate, A.P. (1975) Roost selection of the eastern horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus megaphyllus., Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Conference of the Australian Speleological Federation, 47-56
Nicoll, R.S., Spate, A.P., and Brush, J.B. (1975) Geology and geomorphology of the Marble Arch cave area, N.S.W., Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Conference of the Australian Speleological Federation, 1-5
Spate, A.P., and Ward, J.K. (1979) Black speleothems from Jersey Cave, Yarrangobilly, N.S.W., Proceedings of the Twelfth Biennial Conference of the Australian Speleological Federation, 1-17
Jennings, J.N., Bao Haosheng, and Spate, A.P. (1981) Equilibrium versus events in blind valley enlargement, Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Speleology, 1-5
Spate, A.P., Gillieson, D.S., and Jennings, J.N. (1984) Preliminary note on sand from a Nullarbor Plain Cave, Proceedings of the Fourteenth Biennial Conference of the Australian Speleological Federation, 61-65
Gillieson, D.S., Jennings, J.N., and Spate, A.P. (1983) A silver lining to every missing cloud – speleological investigations in N.S.W. during the 1982-83 drought, Australian Speleological Federation Newsletter 101:5-7
Burch, G.J., Bath, R.K., Spate, A.P., and Nicholls, A.O. (1983) Soil water store, infiltration and runoff characteristics of forest and grassland catchments in central Victoria, Institution of Engineers, Australian, 1983 Hydrology & Water Resources Symposium, pp293-299
Spate, A.P., Gillieson, D.S. and Jennings, J.N. (1984) Anomalous red quartz sands in certain Nullarbor Plain Caves and Dolines, Proceedings of the Second Conference, Australian & New Zealand Geomorphological Group, Broken Hill
James, J.M. and Spate, A.P. (1985) Wee Jasper Caves, Speleological Research Council, Sydney
Spate, A.P. (1985) An annotated index to Helictite, The Journal of Australasian Cave Research, 1966-1985. Helictite, 23 (supplement) 1-25
Houshold, I., Spate, A.P. and Gillieson, D.S. (1986) The Age of Karst Landforms in the Eastern Highlands of Australia, Paper presented to CSIRO Symposium on the Age of Landforms in Eastern Australia, Sept. 1986, Canberra, CSIRO, Division of Water and Land Resources, Technical Memorandum 87/2, Feb. 1987, pp47-50
Spate, A.P., and Ward, J.K. (1987) Water quality in Nullarbor Caves, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Biennial Conference of the Australian Speleological Federation, 86-88
Spate, A.P. (1987) Caves and karst management in Australia, Editorial, Australian Ranger Bulletin 4(3)3
Spate, A.P. (1987) Cave Management – Values and management of karst resources, Australian Ranger Bulletin 4(3)4-5
White, S., and Spate, A.P. (1987) A review of cave classification and formation, Nullarbor Plain, Australia, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Biennial Conference of the Australian Speleological Federation, 103-110
Mathews, P.B., Spate, A.P. and Hamilton-Smith, E. (1987) Scratched markings in Tantanoola Cave (L-12), South Australia, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Biennial Conference of the Australian Speleological Federation, 7-12
Burgess, J.S., Gillieson, D.S. and Spate, A.P. (1987) Geomorphological Studies in the Larsemann Hills – Antarctica. Report to ANARE, Department of Science, 5pp.
Burgess, J.S., Gillieson, D.S. and Spate, A.P. (1988) Australian Antarctic Oasis, Larsemann Hills, Ingrid Christensen Land, Heritage Australia, Autumn 1988:2-6
Gillieson, D.S., Burgess, J.S. and Spate, A.P. (1988) Geomorphology and limnology of the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica, International Geographical Union. 26th Conference, Sydney
Spate, A.P., Houshold, I. and Gillieson, D.S. (1988) Guidebook to selected karst areas of New South Wales: prepared for the IGU Study Group on Man’s Impact on Karst, Dept. of Geog. and Oceanography, Australian Defence Force Academy Occasional Paper, pp27
Spate, A.P., Gillieson, D.S. and Smith, D.I. (1988) Karst and karst management in Australia, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Working Paper, pp60
Spate, A.P. (1989) Managerial interactions with Cavers, Proceedings of the 17th Biennial Conference of the Australian Speleological Federation, 34-38
Spate, A.P. (1989) An introduction to Australian caves and karst, pp3-14, in Gillieson, D.S. and Smith, D.I. (eds), Resource Management in limestone landscapes: international perspectives, Special Publication No. 2, Department of Geography and Oceanography, University College, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra
Spate, A.P. (1989) Cave use and management, pp61-68, in Gillieson, D.S. and Smith, D.I. (eds), Resource Management in limestone landscapes: international perspectives, Special Publication No. 2, Department of Geography and Oceanography, University College, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra
Spate, A.P., (1989) Caves and Karst as a recreational resource in Australia, Australian Parks & Recreation, 25(4)20-24
Smith, D.I., Greenaway, M.A. and Spate, A.P., (1989) Absolute measurement of surface lowering of limestone in Australia, Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Speleology, Budapest, Hungary, pp 539-541
Holland, E. and Spate, A. P. (1989) Some Thoughts on the Training of Cave Guides, Rangers and Managers, Cave Management in Australasia 8:168-17
Gillieson, D., Burgess, J., Spate, A., and Cochrane, A. (1990) An Atlas of the Lakes of the Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica, ANARE Research Notes 74,
Spate, A.P. and Houshold, I., (1990) The Significance of the Mainland Alpine Karst Areas, in Good R.B. (ed.) The Significance of the Australian Alps, Proceedings of the 1st Fenner Conference, Australian Academy Science, Canberra, pp205-219
Spate, A.P., (1990) An approach to the management of a complete karst system – Cooleman Plain, Kosciusko National Park, NSW, Cave Management in Australasia 5:13-19
James, J.M., Rogers, P. and Spate A.P., (1990) The role of mixing corrosion in the genesis of the caves of the Nullarbor Plain, Australia, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Speleology, Budapest, pp 263-265
James, J.M., Pilkington, G., Rogers, P. and Spate A.P., (1991) The Nullarbor carbonate aquifer, Australia: the impact of Man and suggestions for future management, in Sauro, U., Bondesan, A. and Meneghel, M. (eds.) Proceedings International. Conference on Environment Changes in Karst Areas, Italy Sept. 1991, Quad. Dip. Geographia, Universita di Padova, pp 205-211
Spate, A.P., Gillieson, D.S. and Burgess, J.S., (1991) Aspects of the Geomorphology of the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica, Proceedings of the First Edgeworth David Symposium, Univ. of Sydney, 121-123
Worboys, G.L., Mackay, J., Spate, A.P. and Good, R.B., (1991) Protected Area Management in the Australian Alps: a case study – Kosciusko National Park, International Consultation on Mountain Protected Areas, Hawaii
Spate, A.P. and Hamilton-Smith, E., (1992) Do cavers have an impact? Australian Caver, 131:12-19
James, J.M. and Spate, A.P., (1993): The role of sodium chloride in speleogenesis beneath the Nullarbor Plain, Australia. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress of Speleology, Beijing, China. 99-101.
Smith, B.J., Moses, C.A., Spate, A.P., Smith, D.I. and Greenaway, M.A., (1993) The influence of microflora on limestone weathering rates: a long term micro-erosion meter and scanning electron microscope study, Third International Conference of Geomorphology., Ontario
Spate, A.P. and Hamilton-Smith, E., (1993) Caver’s impacts – some theoretical and applied considerations, Cave Management in Australasia 9, pp20-30
Spate, A.P. and Moses, C.A. (1993) Impacts of high pressure cleaning: A case study from Jenolan, Cave Management in Australasia 10:45-48
Burgess J.S., Spate A.P. and Norman F.I., (1994) Environmental impact resulting from recent occupation of the Larsemann Hills, Eastern Antarctic, presented at Antarctic Communities: Species, Structure & Survival, Sixth SCAR Biology Symposium, Venice, May/June 1994, p 42
Burgess, J.S., Carson. C., Head, J and Spate. A. (1995) Landform evolution in the Larsemann Hills in the last 25,000 years. VII International Symposium on Ant. Earth Sciences, Seinna, Sept 1995, p69 .
Hamilton-Smith, E. and Spate, A.P., (1994) The South-East Karst of South Australia: A Bibliography, Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association, Melbourne
Spate A. P., (1994) Bishops and Bears: Climatic Change – a Black Green or White Spectre?, Proceedings ANZECC Sixth Australasian Regional Seminar, Canberra, pp 357-385
Spate A. P., (1994) Go Underground to Stay On Top? An Assessment of “Goldmines”, Proceedings ANZECC Sixth Australasian Regional Seminar, Canberra, pp 386-401
Spate, A.P., (1995) (ed.) Cave Management in Australasia 7, Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the Australasian Cave Tourism And Management Association, the Association, Melbourne
Grimes, K.G., Hamilton-Smith, E. and Spate A.P., (1995) South East Karst Province of South Australia, Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association Inc., Melbourne, 110 pp + 6 appendices
Spate, A.P. and Little, L., (1997) Is the conventional approach to karst area management appropriate to tropical Australia?, Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Australasian Cave Tourism And Management, May 1995, pp 68-84, Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association, Melbourne
Burgess, J.S., Gore, D. and Spate, A. (1997) Quaternary evolution of the Larsemann Hills. International Workshop, Larsemann Hills: an Antarctic Microcosm, Hobart 13-16 May, Abstracts p7
Spate, Andy, Kiernan, Kevin & Hamilton-Smith, Elery. (1998) Geoconservation in land-use planning: Some lessons from North West Cape, Western Australia. in Islands: Economy, Society and Environment. Proceedings of the 1997 Joint Conference of the Institute of Australian Geographers and New Zealand Geographical Society, Hamilton, NZ: New Zealand Geographical Society, pp.451-453.
Spate, A.P., Hamilton-Smith E., Holland, E. and Little L., (1998) Best Practice and Tourist Cave Engineering, Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the Australasian Cave And Karst Management Association, May 1997, pp 97-110
Spate, A.P., Thomas, V. and Gough, J. (1998) Defining the Coastal Zone: Does it extend to Mount Kosciuszko?, Proceedings of the Eighth NSW Coastal Conference, Batemans Bay, November 1998
Spate, Andy, Gough, Jane and Thurgate, Mia, (1999) Karstic Groundwater Ecosystems in the Murray Darling and Otway Groundwater Basins, pp 70-78, Proceedings of the Murray Darling Groundwater Workshop 1999, Griffith
Thurgate, Mia, Spate, Andy and Herr, Alexander, (2000) Diversity at Depth: The NSW Cave Invertebrate Story, Fifth Australian Karst Studies Seminar, Helictite 37(1)23 (extended abstract)
Spate, A., Richardson, B. and Reilly, S. (2001) Management of “wild” caves in New South Wales, Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference of the Australasian Cave And Karst Management Association, May 2001, pp57-61
Spate, A., Gough. J., Bauer, P., Bauer, J., Lake, M. Richardson, B. and Taylor, J. (2001) Hardening of Cave Entrances at Bungonia State Recreation Area, New South Wales, Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference of the Australasian Cave And Karst Management Association, May 2001, pp111-115
Spate, A.P. and Gough, J.S., (2001) Strategies and problems in the management of caves in Australia: are national parks and national monuments the answer?, Proceedings of the 2nd Seminar for Preservation of Natural Heritage, Cultural Properties Administration, Republic of Korea
Spate, A., Pettitt, M. and Caldwell, J., (2003) Harvesting and rehabilitation of the Jounama Pine Plantation, Kosciuszko National Park, Proceedings of the 2002 International Year of the Mountains Conference, Jindabyne, on CD-ROM
Spate, A.P. and Gartrell, N. (2004) Groundwater dependent ecosystems in New South Wales – policy directions and projects, The First International Workshop on RAMSAR Subterranean Wetlands, Naracoorte
Thurgate, M.E. and Spate A.P. (2004) Stygofauna Diversity and Distribution in the Eastern Australian highlands and their potential as subterranean Ramsar sites, The First International Workshop on RAMSAR Subterranean Wetlands, Naracoorte
Spate, Andy (2004) Would we go again? ACKMA and the 2002 International Cave Expo, Samcheok City, Republic of Korea, Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference of the Australasian Cave And Karst Management Association, May 2003
Spate, Andy, (2004) Bushfires and karst in southern New South Wales – 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference of the Australasian Cave And Karst Management Association, May 2003
Spate, Andy, Bell, Peter, Houshold, Ian and Webb, Rauleigh (2008) Lava caves with calcite speleothems: some international comparisons, Paper presented at the Thirteenth International Vulcanospeleology Conference, Jeju Island, Korea
Min Huh, Kyung Sik Woo, and Spate, A. (2008) Aspects of geotourism in South Korea, pp 355-359 in Proceedings of the First Global Conference on Geotourism, Perth.
Bourne, Stephen, Spate, Andy & Hamilton-Smith, Elery, (2008) Show caves: Australia’s oldest form of geotourism? pp 97-102 in Proceedings of the First Global Conference on Geotourism, Perth.
Cathles, Helen, Cathles, Ian, Kell, Geoff and AndySpate (2008) Geotourism in a small and remote rural community, pp 347-354 Proceedings of the First Global Conference on Geotourism, Perth.
James, Julia M., and Spate, Andy (2009) Sustainability in a karst – the Bungonia Caves, New South Wales, Australia, International Conference on Sustainability of the Karst Environment, Plitvice Lakes, Croatia
Spate, A.P. and Bourne, S., (2009) Geotourism in Some Small Rural Communities in Australia, in Jiun-Chuan Lin (ed.), pp 165-194, in Proceedings of the East Asian Geoparks Conference: East Asian Geoparks – Vision, Problems and Prospects, Taipei
Spate, A.P., (2010) Protected area and heritage management in Australia: 1. Background, Proceedings of the Jeju Island Summer Peace School 2010, Jeju National University, South Korea
Spate, A.P., (2010) Protected area and heritage management in Australia: 2: Management, Proceedings of the Jeju Island Summer Peace School 2010, Jeju National University, South Korea
Spate, A.P., (2010) World Heritage in Australia: Sites of Outstanding Universal Value, Proceedings of the Jeju Island Summer Peace School 2010, Jeju National University, South Korea
Spate, A.P., (2010) Climate change implications for Australian World Heritage properties, Proceedings of the Jeju Island Summer Peace School 2010, Jeju National University, South Korea
Spate, Andy and Houshold, Ian (2011) An Overview of the Mole Creek Karst, Tasmania, Proceedings of the Nineteenth Conference of the Australasian Cave And Karst Management Association, May 2011
Grimes, K.G., Wray, A.R.L., Spate, A. and Houshold, I (2011) Caves and Ruiniform Features in Sandstones of Northern Australia, Proceedings of the Nineteenth Conference of the Australasian Cave And Karst Management Association, May 2011
Spate, Andy, Henderson, Kent, Cove, Dan and Martin, Greg (2011) Introduction to Australian Caves and Karst, Proceedings of the 6th International Show Caves Association Congress, Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovakia
Swabey, S., Smith, D.I., Spate, A, and Lambert, D. (2011) Landforms are not static – geodiversity and geoheritage in a changing world, Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales 132 – Special Issue on the Symposium on Geodiversity, Geological Heritage and Geotourism.
Spate, Andy (2012) World Heritage and Geoparks in Australia: resources and management, Proceedings of the International Symposium on a Global Plan for Mt. Mudeung, South Korea, Gwangju.
Huh, Min and Spate, Andy (2012) The values and a potential global future for Mudeung Mountain, Proceedings of the International Symposium on a Global Plan for Mt. Mudeung, South Korea, Gwangju.
Spate, A.P. and Gough, S.J., (in prep.) The geology, geomorphology and hydrology of the Yarrangobilly Karst Area, Kosciuszko National Park, New South Wales, Australia
Spate, Andy and Spate, Jess, (in prep.) The caves at Ravine (re)discovered, to be submitted to Helictite
Ambrose, J. and Spate, A., (in prep.) Outstanding Karst Areas of Australia: Proceedings and Technical Report of the National Framework for Karst Values Workshop, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra.
Spate, A.P. (1998) The cave bats of Bungonia, in Bauer, J. and Bauer, P. (eds.), Under Bungonia, Life on Paper Publishing, pp 66-73
Gillieson, D. and Spate, A. (1998) Karst and Caves in Australia and New Guinea, In Yuan Daoxian & Liu Zaihua (eds.), Global Karst Correlation, Science Press, Beijing PRC and VSP Press, Utrecht NL, pp229-256
Spate, Andy, (1999) Landscapes, Chapter 4, in David, Bruno, (ed.) Ngarrabullgan: Geographical Investigations in Djungan Country, Cape York Peninsula, Monash Publications in Geography and Environmental Science, Number 51, Monash University, Clayton, pp 57-71
Spate, Andy, (1999) Sandstone Landforms, Chapter 5 in David, Bruno, (ed.) Ngarrabullgan: Geographical Investigations in Djungan Country, Cape York Peninsula, Monash Publications in Geography and Environmental Science, Number 51, Monash University, Clayton, pp 72-77
Spate, A.P., (2002) Karst values, Chapter 7 in Kosciuszko Independent Scientific Committee, An assessment of the values of Kosciuszko National Park, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville , pp 45-64
Spate, A.P., (2008) Cave Invertebrates, in Jodie Rutledge, J., et. al. (eds), Timor Caves: Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Newcastle & Hunter Valley Speleological Society, Broadmeadow, NSW
Spate, A.P., (2010) Chapters on Geology, Fossils, Bats and Vegetation + other text in Dunkley, J., Spate A. and Welch, B., Wee Jasper Caves, Australian Speleological Federation Inc. Broadway, NSW
Spate, A.P. and Gough, S.J., (in prep.) The geology, geomorphology and hydrology of the Yarrangobilly Karst Area, Kosciuszko National Park, New South Wales, Australia; commissioned for a forthcoming book on Yarrangobilly to be published by the Sydney Speleological Society
Major unpublished reports
CSIRO Technical papers and memoranda
Moore, R.M., Walker, J., Hutchings, R.J., Spate, A.P., and Hopkins, M.S (1976) Ecological studies and conservation projects on Army training areas, 1974. CSIRO, LUR Tech. Memo. 76/2
Wells, K.F., Gowland, P.N., and Spate, A.P. (1977) Natural Resources of the Buckland Training Area, Tasmania. CSIRO, LUR Tech. Memo. 77/14
Spate, A.P., Cheney, N.P., and Walker, J. (1978) Fire management on the Puckapunyal Range. CSIRO LUR Tech. Memo. 78/20
Spate, A.P. (1978) Fungal plant pathogens at Puckapunyal – a review. CSIRO, LUR Tech, Memo. 78/24
Crapper, P.F., and Spate, A.P. (1979) Reducing the environmental impact of armoured fighting vehicle training by evaluating land attributes in a simple data bank. CSIRO, LUR Tech. Memo. 79/5
Grant, K., Finlayson, A.A., Spate, A.P., and Ferguson, T.G. (1979) Terrain analysis and classification for engineering and conservation purposes of the Port Clinton Area, Queensland, including the Shoalwater Bay Military Training Area. CSIRO, Applied Geomechanics Tech. Pap. 29
Spate, A.P. (compiler) (1980) Natural Resources of the Puckapunyal Training Area, Victoria. CSIRO LUR Tech. Memo. 80/8
National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW) major plans and reports
Kosciusko National Park Plan of Management (1982) – substantial contributions
Jounama Pine Plantation Environmental Impact Statement (1983) – substantial contributions to sections 4, 5, 7; Appendices 4, 5, 6, 7, 10; contributions to whole document, editing, liaison with other government departments and research institutions
Cooleman Plains Management Unit karst area management plan, Kosciusko National Park (1984)
Review of Nature Conservation Programmes, Paper No. 33, Karst Sites of Significance (1984)
Jounama Pine Plantation Harvesting and Rehabilitation Project First Rehabilitation Report – Investigation of revegetation methods and survey of the distribution of Pinus wildings. April 1986. Major contribution.
An introduction to speleology for cave guides and rangers - whole document. This 120 page book has been completely rewritten on eight occasions to provide the necessary local emphasis and examples for central and southern NSW, South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and South Africa
Yessabah Caves Port Macquarie Region – Report on Caves, Karst and Other Features (1986)
Yessabah Nature Reserve – Toward a Draft Plan of Management (1998)
Yarrangobilly Management Unit karst area management plan, Kosciusko National Park (1990)
Karst Reconnaissance — Northern Region: Ashford, Willi Willi, Yessabah (1995)
Cave Communities — Submission to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency (1995) – with Stefan Eberhard,
Cave Invertebrate Survey: Toward an Atlas of New South Wales Cave Fauna (1995) – with Stefan Eberhard – report to the Department of Urban Affairs and Planning
Bats, Bugs and People: Sea Cave Investigations on the South Coast of New South Wales (1998)
Major consultancy reports
Hamilton-Smith, E., Spate, A.P., and others (1983) Tantanoola Caves Conservation Park, Draft Management Plan, National Parks and Wildlife Service, South Australia.
Hamilton-Smith, E., Spate, A.P., Holland, E.A. & Mott, K. (1988) Cutta Cutta Caves Nature Reserve: Management proposals, unpublished report to the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin.
Davey, A.G. and Spate, A.P. (1990) Management of karst features in parks and reserves of the Nullarbor Region, South Australia, A report to the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Applied Natural Resource Management, Canberra.
Houshold, I., Spate, A.P. and Stanton, R. (1990) Geomorphic and hydrologic resources of the Wellington Caves area, Report to the Wellington Shire Council, Wellington.
Spate, A.P. and Holland, E.A. (1990) Croesus Cave, Mole Creek, Tasmania: A review of resources, visitor impacts and management issues, Report to the Tasmanian Forestry Commission, Hobart.
Spate, A.P. and Houshold, I, (1990) The geomorphology and hydrology of the Ida Bay karst area with particular reference to quarrying operations, Report to the Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Tasmania, Hobart.
Spate, A.P., (1990) Kubla Khan Cave, Mole Creek, Tasmania, Pilot Management Study, A report to the Tasmanian Department of Parks Wildlife and Heritage, Hobart.
Spate, A.P. and Gillieson, D.S., (1992) Wombeyan Caves Geophysical Survey, unpublished report to the Jenolan Caves Reserve Trust, Bathurst.
Davey, A.G., Egloff, B., McQueen, K.G. and Spate, A.P., (1992) Conservation plan: Paddys River Caves and Mine Precinct, Bullen Range Nature Reserve, Murrumbidgee River Corridor and Pierces Creek Forest, ACT, report to ACT Forests, Canberra.
Davey, A.G., Gray, M.R. Grimes, K.G., Hamilton-Smith, E., James, J.M., and Spate, A.P., (1992) World Heritage Significance of karst and other landforms in the Nullarbor Region, report to the Department of Arts, Sport, the Environment and Territories, Canberra.
Spate, A.P., (1994) Assessor’s Report on Objections to the Nomination of the Chillagoe Karst Area to the Register of the National Estate, report to the Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
Spate, A.P., (1995) Assessor’s Report on Objections to the Nomination of the Fanning River Karst Area to the Register of the National Estate, report to the Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
Hamilton-Smith, E., Kiernan, K. and Spate, A.P. (1998) Karst management considerations for the Cape Range Karst Province, Western Australia, report to the Western Australian Department of Environmental Protection, Perth.
Spate, A.P. and Webb, R. (1998) Management options for cave use on Christmas Island, report to Parks Australia North, Darwin.
Spate, A.P., (2002) Cave tourism in the Alotau region, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, Report to Aesop Business Volunteers Ltd and Milne Bay Magic Tours.
Spate, A.P., (2004) Derelict mines assessment, South Coast, New South Wales, unpublished report to the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Department of Mineral Resources.
URS, (2004) Post January 2003 Bushfire Erosion Modelling and Slope Stability Assessment for the Kosciuszko National Park, NSW, unpublished report to the NSW National Parks And Wildlife Service, Jindabyne.
Matthews, D., Waldren, K. and Spate, A., (2004) Landscape Rehabilitation at the Mount Stromlo Observatory, unpublished report to the Australian National University, Canberra.
Grimes, K.G., Wray, R.A.L., Spate, A.P. and Houshold, I., (2009) Karst and Pseudokarst in Northern Australia, unpublished report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra.
Spate, A.P., (2009) M2G – proposed Murrumbidgee to Googong water transfer project: Potential Implications for the London Bridge natural bridge and karst, unpublished report to GHD and ACTEWAGL, Canberra.
Spate, A.P., (2009) State of karst and caves in New South Wales: A 2009 Perspective, unpublished report to the Karst and Geodiversity Unit, Department of Environment and Climate Change, Sydney Wales.
Worboys, G.L., Good, R.B. and Spate A.P., (2011) Caring for our Australian Alps Catchments: A Climate Change Action Strategy For The Australian Alps To Conserve The Natural Condition Of The Catchments And To Help Minimise Threats To High Quality Water Yields, technical report prepared for the Australian Alps Liaison Committee and the Commonwealth Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, Canberra, 136pp.
Spate, Andy, (2012) Lighting infrastructure in some Korean show caves: Review and recommendations, report to the Korean Cave Research Institute.